What are Cappuccino Bunkers?

In 2012 Singapore became the centre of a bunkering dispute which resulted in a full investigation into what is known in the marine industry as the ‘cappuccino effect’.

What is the cappuccino effect?

Cappuccino bunkers are caused by compressed air being blown into the fuel oil during the transfer process. The blown air increases the apparent volume of fuel oil, but once the process is completed air rises to the surface resulting in froth and foam sitting on the surface of the fuel in a cappuccino effect.

As a result of this malpractice the shortfall for vessels can be significant, the vessel in Singapore ended up with 46 tonnes less fuel.

How is it caused?

The cappuccino effect occurs when air is injected into fuel oil, which can be done in a couple of different ways during transfer

  • Compressed air can be blown into tanks before it’s transferred to increase the apparent volume of the fuel oil.
  • Air can be injected into the fuel oil during transfer via the discharge pump or into the discharge line. Compressed air equipment, usually used to blow through pipelines after discharge, may be used in this process or a separate system can be used.

What are the signs?

Whilst the resulting ‘cappuccino effect’ is one of the most visual alerts to this problem, there are other tell-tale signs that something isn’t right throughout the transfer process.

  • Foam or frothing on the surface of the fuel oil prior to bunkering and on a vessel whilst transfer is taking place. Also look for bubbles and frothing on sounding tape or brass bob throughout the transfer process.
  • Check the pipework for suspect connections before the transfer begins. Look out for suspect connections on the supply pump and pipework where air injection lines can be used to blow air into fuel oil. Make time to inspect the line blowing arrangements before transfer begins.
  • Unusual noises heard by the crew of the vessel in Singapore were the first indication that something was wrong. If compressed air has been injected you’ll hear gurgling noises coming from the supply line or at the manifold. The fuel tank vent head and ball or float valves may also vibrate or rattle if there is an excessive amount of air present. You may also notice the supply hose moving around in a jolting or shuddering motion.

Bunker fuel sampling ensures a representative sample is captured for testing and analysis, it forms the basis of all discussion, debate or dispute resolution relating to bunkering. The Parker Kittiwake bunker fuel samplers are lightweight and easy to install and come complete with bunker fuel sampler joint rings.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

How to make savings on bunker costs

Marine fuel, on average, accounts for more than half of the total cost of operating a marine vessel. Not only this but ship owners and operators are coming under increasing pressure as the deadline for changes to emission control areas (ECAs) in 2015 draws ever closer.

Optimising value where possible in the marine industry is becoming increasingly important. As a sign of the times ExxonMobil this year released their top five tips on how to save money on bunker costs, which the company claim can save owners and operators up to $3 per tonne of fuel purchased.

Read on to see what the top five tips are and how to achieve them.

Minimise Water Content
The ISO 8217:2012 water content compliance level is set at 0.5%. Marine fuels supplied at this cost can potentially cost $6,000 per purchase for a 2,000-tonne bunkering. The water needs to be removed before burning, adding further costs to the purchase of up to $3,000. On top of this, removal of the sludge (a by-product of this process) may also incur additional costs. Opting for a lower water content fuel will result in savings in the long-term. Fuel can be tested on site at time of bunkering for water content using a Parker Kittiwake digi kit.

Stay Clear of High Metal Content
Aluminium and Silicon are commonly found in marine fuels. Known as catalytic fines they have the potential to cause significant damage to vessel engines which can lead to delays, losses and repair costs.

Despite some of the world’s leading engine builders recommending catalytic fines levels of 15 mg/kg, under the ISO 8217:2012 catalytic fines of up to 60mg/kg and 80 mg/kg under the ISO 8217:2005 are allowed for.

All major oil suppliers aim to keep catalytic fines levels in their marine fuel low, at an average of 10mg/kg, helping to limit the removal of catalytic fines, reduce abrasive wear on engine components and avoid the cost of additional maintenance and possible breakdowns.

Marine Fuel Stability
A trend for blending marine fuels from different sources has emerged in an attempt to meet the lower sulphur levels specified in the changing marine industry regulations. The resulting blended fuel can be unstable and has the potential to cause sludge or a build up of heavy deposits which can result in high repair costs and impact vessel performance. The compatibility of different fuels can be tested using a compatibility oven.

Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index (CCAI) Level
CCAI indicates the level of marine fuel combustion quality. It’s important for these levels to not be too high or too low – low or high level marine fuel can cause poor combustion and has the potential to impact vessel performance. ISO 8217:2012 sets the maximum limit of 870 for most common residual marine fuel grades, choosing marine fuels within these limits will help protect against poor performance. CCAI can be calculated by knowing the density and viscosity of the HFO.

Laboratory analysis
As well as the above points ExxonMobil, and other major oil suppliers, also recommend to send fuel samples to an approved laboratory for bunker fuel testing, allowing operators to understand the quality of the marine fuel received and how to manage the marine fuel system on board their vessels. Ensuring the fuel quality at the time of delivery and calculating the density is an integral part of good bunkering practices.

The importance of a suitably drawn and witnessed representative bunker fuel oil sample cannot be over-emphasised. It forms the basis of all discussion, debate or dispute resolution relating to the bunkering. The most common and economic means of obtaining a representative bunker fuel sample is by using a drip sampler, such as the Parker Kittiwake drip / line bunker fuel samplers found on thousands of ships worldwide. The representative sample is then decanted into approve bottles for analysis and storage.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

Parker Kittiwake at SMM Hamburg 2014

Parker Kittiwake will be attending the annual SMM conference and trade fair in Hamburg, Germany on 9th – 12th September 2014.

The trade fair is widely recognised as the international platform and leading forum for the maritime industry, attracting the world’s leading companies in the field, who come to present their innovations, trends and new technologies.

Come and see us on the Parker Hannifin Stand 319 in Hall A4 where our experienced Application Engineers and Sales Team will be on hand to discuss condition monitoring and our range of solutions to help monitor your assets and alert you to problems at the very onset of failure.

If you’ve suffered from cold corrosion issues come and talk to us. The problem of cold corrosion is escalating, operating conditions, high sulphur fuels and sub-optimal feed rates are causing costly acidic corrosion to cylinder liners. Parker Kittiwake’s new Cold Corrosion Test Kit goes beyond the capabilities of other cold corrosion kits to allow ship owners and operators to obtain an accurate picture of the levels of corrosive elements present in cylinder oil, potentially preventing critical damage before it occurs.

We look forward to seeing you there.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

Parker Kittiwake at the Climate Engineering Conference

Parker Kittiwake will be attending the Climate Engineering Conference in Berlin, Germany on 18-21 August 2014.

Climate engineering is rapidly becoming a contentious issue within political, scientific, and cultural discussions of climate change, in part due to a perceived lack of progress on crucial emission reductions. This conference aims to bring together the research, policy and civic communities to discuss the highly complex and interlinked ethical, social and technical issues surrounding climate engineering. Find out more about the conference on www.ce-conference.org.

We look forward to seeing you there.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

The Holroyd MCH-HMI Unit

Parker Kittiwake is pleased to announce the launch of the Holroyd HMI (Human Machine Interface) Unit.

Used alongside the MHC (Machine Health Checker) Smart Std and Smart Slo sensors, part of the MHC 4000 Series Sensors from Parker Kittiwake Holroyd, the HMI Unit translates sensor data, allows detailed analysis of historical data and can be accessed remotely.

The HMI Unit is a data monitoring and recording device which, when used in conjunction with the Smart and Slo sensors, translates the 0-10V outputs of the sensors into dB, Distress, Peak, Intensity and Extent readings, as well as providing access to a variety of methods for reacting to the readings obtained from the MHC sensors.

Once the HMI Unit has been successfully connected and configured with sensors, it displays their current alarm states with colour indications to easily identify status. Historical data for each sensor can also be easily accessed using the HMI Unit, allowing for detailed analysis.

The HMI Unit can be accessed remotely via an internet browser if the Unit is connected to the internet, making it easy and flexible to access sensor data.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

Guide to Emission Analysers for Industrial & Marine

Procal are world leaders in continuous emission analysers and continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS), used to monitor emissions in industrial and marine environments in compliance with the standards set by environmental agencies across the world.

Since 1985 we have supplied over 3000 units, from standalone to fully-integrated systems. Here, we pull together the knowledge and expertise we have to provide you with a guide to our continuous emission analysers suitable for industrial and marine environments.

Procal 2000 – Infra-Red Analyser
Procal 2000 Infra-red AnalyserThis duct-, or stack-mounted, gas analyser uses the reflective beam principle to measure process gas as it enters the sample cell, providing analysis of up to six gas-phase emission components.

Operating on the proven, single beam, dual–wavelength IR light principle, two specific wavelengths per monitored component are transmitted through the sample cell. The ‘measure’ pulse is partially absorbed by the gases being measured, while the ‘reference’ pulse remains unaffected. Up to eight wavelengths are available, sometimes sharing reference wavelengths, allowing up to six gas-phase component concentrations to be monitored simultaneously.

Using our sintered metal technology, the Procal 2000 removes the need for gas filtering or sample conditioning and requires little maintenance.

Procal 5000 – Ultra-Violet Analyser
Procal 5000 - Ultra-Violet AnalyserThe Procal 5000 also uses the reflective beam principle to directly measure process gases entering an in-situ sample cell, providing complete gas analysis. The full UV spectrum is stored and analysed, and the gas emission concentrations calculated using absorption spectroscopy.

Using an extended-life UV source, the Procal 5000 is capable of over 7000 hours of continuous operation. The integral zero and calibration point gas capability means maintenance is kept to a minimum.

Procal 6000 – Radioactive Gas Monitoring
Procal 6000 – Radioactive Gas MonitoringThe simple design of the Procal 6000 is well suited for stack testing and analysis of corrosive, toxic, and potentially radioactive gas-phase samples. The in-duct system is reliable and relatively low maintenance.

The Procal 6000 uses the same single beam principle as the Procal 2000, incorporating Gas Filter Correlation to minimise the risk of cross sensitivity.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

Parker Kittiwake at the Propulsion & Emissions Conference

Parker Kittiwake will be attending and sponsoring the 36th Propulsion and Emissions Conference, held in Hamburg, Germany at the Atlantic Kempinski Hotel, on 21st – 22nd May 2014.

The two day conference will see global shipping industry leaders discuss and debate current and future industry issues. On the first day of the conference Parker Hannifin’s Research Manager, Stuart Lunt, will be giving an informative talk on measuring the metallic and corrosive wear within cylinders through the use of onboard analysis of used scrape-down oil. See the full conference schedule here.

We look forward to seeing you there.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

CEM 2014 International Conference & Exhibition on Emissions Monitoring

Parker Kittiwake will be attending the 11th International Conference and exhibition on Emissions Monitoring from the 14th-16th May 2014.

The conference and exhibition, which takes place in Istanbul, Turkey, will see the international emissions monitoring community come together to discuss cutting-edge technologies and focus on industry topics including regulation, innovation, and quality assurance and control.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

Parker Kittiwake at the Marine Propulsion Conference

Parker Kittiwake will be attending and exhibiting at the annual Marine Propulsion and Auxiliary Machinery Conference in London from 23-24th April 2014.

The conference, now in its 7th year, will see industry experts addressing the leading issues facing marine engineering today.

We will be showcasing our latest condition monitoring products, including the new cold corrosion test kit and our latest filter range for LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) applications.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com

Benefits of the Parker Kittiwake Metallic Wear Debris Sensor

It’s no secret that particles result from wear. That’s why your oil analysis service includes a Spectrometric Analysis and ferrous density report, but what happens should a problem arise between sampling?

The Parker Kittiwake Metallic Wear Debris Sensor goes beyond the scope of normal wear debris sensors. Here are just a few of its benefits:

Unbeatable detection range
The Metallic Wear Debris Sensor provides readings not only for ferrous metals but also for non-ferrous metals. The sensor is able to tell you not just the number of particles which pass through your system, but also the size and metallic composition.

Real-time monitoring
Our sensor goes beyond normal protection systems, allowing you to monitor in real-time. With the sensor you’ll be able to take immediate action on the first indication of change, thereby preventing all types of failures which can occur between traditional sampling.

Adaptable to your lubrication system
The sensor is extremely adaptable and can be mounted within almost any lubrication system, on any type of machine. By using proven inductive coil technology, combined with smart algorithms to provide a particle size distribution count, the sensor measures ferrous and non-ferrous metals resulting from the wear debris within the lubricant, placing the user in control. The severity of the problem increases with an escalation in the production of larger wear debris particles.

Easily integrated
With both digital and analogue outputs, the sensor can be easily integrated into existing condition monitoring and operating control systems, putting the user in control. Whether it’s checking the health of the machine or alerting to changing wear patterns, the sensor provides instant information, complementing existing laboratory oil analysis programmes and helping the user make informed decisions concerning maintenance planning.

For further information contact us on:
Tel: +44 1903 731470
Email: kittiwakeinfo@parker.com