Parker Kittiwake Launches New CAT Fines Test Kit

Test kit detects catalytic fines to prevent irreparable damage to fuel pumps, injectors, piston rings and liners

LONDON – 16 October 2015 – Parker Kittiwake, a leading global provider of asset control and protection technology, has today announced a breakthrough in the early detection of catalytic (cat) fines with the launch of its Cat Fines Test Kit. This simple,  wet chemistry, on-board test identifies the presence of abrasive silicon and aluminium fines in HFO.

The quality of fuel brought on board has always been difficult to determine at point of loading and as such Kittiwake has developed many fuel property test kits over the years to ensure the end user is getting what they pay for.  Up till now, the detection of cat fines in fuel oil was only possible using laboratory analysis techniques. The Parker Kittiwake Cat Fines Test Kit provides accurate results in a matter of minutes, potentially preventing critical damage before it occurs.

Earlier this year, leading fuel testing and inspection company Veritas Petroleum Services raised concerns that even when the ignition and combustion characteristics of a fuel have been tested and proven to meet specification, cat fines can still remain undetected in the fuel and consequently enter the system, potentially causing a total loss of propulsion. In parallel, underwriters are increasingly insistent on enforcing compliance with the guidance they issue on reducing the risk of cat fines, which means that owners who do not take sufficient steps to reduce their exposure to this hazard will find their claims much less likely to succeed.

As more emission control areas (ECAs) come into operation, there are growing concerns around fuel quality and the number of engine wear situations related to cat fines are increasing. Research has shown that even small cat fine particles of below 10 micron contribute to significant wear.  Incidences of excessive cylinder liner wear have been recorded even though the bunkered fuel oil was within the limits of the ISO 8217:2005 specification, which dictates a maximum of 60 ppm. This is why cat fines are causing such problems for ship-owners.”

The use of non-ISO compliant fuel, faulty fuel purifiers, and/or rough weather kicking up fines from the bottom of the settling tanks are all capable of introducing these suspended particles into the fuel system. The Parker Kittiwake Cat Fines Test Kit provides early forewarning of these destructive particles and give a vessel’s crew maximum opportunity to take corrective steps.”

For more than two decades, Parker Kittiwake has designed, developed and manufactured condition monitoring and test equipment for lube oil, hydraulic oil and fuels. Engineers the world over use Kittiwake equipment to gain vital insights into the health of their vessels’ engines or to measure fuel quality and compatibility. The Cat Fines Test Kit is an important addition to the company’s comprehensive suite of condition-based maintenance (CBM) products, underlining Parker Kittiwake’s commitment to developing tools and technology that addresses the challenges faced by today’s ship owners and marine engineers.

Switching Fuel Oil and the Risk of Loss of Propulsion

Nearly nine months have passed since the 0.1% sulphur limit for marine fuels in designated Emissions Control Area (ECA) was introduced following a tightening of MARPOL Annex VI regulations.  Although the general consensus is that operators are largely sticking to the new protocol, the US Coast Guard (USCG) has reported a number of incidents involving fuel leakages caused by fuel switchovers.  These procedures, intended to ensure compliance, do not always have proper safeguards in place.

Fuel switchover risks

Operators who have not chosen to reduce their sulphur emissions by fitting exhaust gas scrubbers are burning traditional fuel in the open seas and then switching to low-sulphur, lighter distillate fuels while inside ECAs.  Machinery space leakages raise the risk of pollution, engine room fires and possible ‘loss of propulsion’ (LOP).

Earlier this year the USCG reminded vessel operators of the importance of establishing robust fuel oil changeover procedures.  As well as ensuring that the fuel tank has been modified where necessary, there should be adequate supplies of ECA-compliant fuel.

Other factors to be considered by ship operators trading within ECAs include differences in viscosity and flash point between the heavy and light fuels.

Loss of propulsion

Among the most common causes of LOP are problems with:

  • Temperature control – while heavy fuels need to be heated, this is not always the case with the lighter fuels associated with low-sulphur.  During the switchover, fuels are moved through the same systems and the heating can cause a ‘flashing’ of the lighter fuel, turning it to vapour and causing a loss of power in the cylinder.
  • Pumps – existing pumps may be unable to cope with the suction of the less viscous lighter oils.
  • Waxy formations in the fuel lines – these are left by low-grade heavy fuel oil.  When lighter oil is introduced it has a solvent-like effect, dislodging the built-up residues and so clogging up fuel filters.

When modifying boilers (most modern boilers were not designed to burn lighter fuel) it is recommended that the manufacturer of the equipment is consulted.  Other important advice from industry experts includes testing changeover procedures before the vessel enters an ECA and ensuring the crew firstly have access to a detailed fuel changeover manual and, secondly, carry out a proper risk assessment.

In January there was a surge in the number of ships filing a Fuel Oil Non Availability Request to the US authorities, mostly due to vessels not having sufficient supplies of fuel oil in time for the 1st January deadline.  Since then the rate has dropped substantially.  Where there are still reports of lack of compliant fuel it generally relates to routine issues, such as weather delays rather than non-availability in ports.

Parker Kittiwake has built a reputation as a global leader in bunker fuel testing and oil sampling solutions for the marine sector.  For more information call the team today on 01903 731470.

Measuring Ferrous Wear: the FWM vs. the Analex fdMplus

When it comes to detecting and analysing machine wear, testing for ferrous density – the presence of iron or steel particles in an oil sample – is especially important.

Particle density analysis should be routinely carried out on the wear mechanisms responsible for the largest amounts of ferrous particles.

Of the principal wear metals, iron is by some way the most significant for monitoring purposes. This contaminant tends to accumulate in dynamic clearances and so cause a chain reaction of wear. Closed loop systems – hydraulics and pumps for example – are particularly prone to this. Traditional barrier protection alone will not provide adequate protection from debris, and it only takes a small amount of contaminant to start damaging the system over an extended period of time.

A Continuous Monitoring programme will make use of ferrous density testing, among other techniques, to ensure equipment is being lubricated properly without needing to shut down the machine and suspend production.

Analyse wear debris

Parker Kittiwake supplies a range of instruments which analyse wear debris to determine the origin, wear mechanism and contamination levels, thereby allowing engineers to identify the worn parts of a machine before severe damage occurs.

The magnetometers we describe below – the ANALEX fdMplus Ferrous Debris Monitor and the Ferrous Wear Meter – are both used around the world in a variety of marine and industrial settings.

ANALEX fdMplus Ferrous Debris Monitor

This robust magnetometer measures wear metal particle contamination in oil and grease samples, with results displayed in industry-standard parts per million (PPM) values. It can test and analyse samples in the field as well as in the laboratory, making it especially suitable for remote, unmanned locations such as wind turbine farms where a full laboratory analysis is not possible.

Whether employed at power plants, mines or railways, by measuring debris in all types of oil ANALEX instruments are making production more efficient and operations more profitable.

The Ferrous Wear Meter (FWM)

This simple-to-use instrument offers all the usual Parker Kittiwake quality and accuracy, but has been designed for clients who do not need an instrument as sophisticated as the fdMplus. It can test samples on-board, including in remote locations, and provides a direct reading in PPM on its LCD screen. Featuring a magnetometer adapted for on-site use, FWM testing is performed by placing a 5ml test tube containing the sample directly in the instrument’s aperture. The sample’s metallic content appears on the screen in less than two seconds. No time needs to be spent preparing the sample.

In a competitive marketplace, it is highly advantageous to minimise downtime and so keep costs down. By ensuring lubricants and components are free of contaminants operators can improve the overall reliability of their equipment.

Parker Kittiwake has over two decades’ experience in fluid condition monitoring equipment for fuel, oils and water, and provides a comprehensive range of test kits and on-site analysis solutions for marine, offshore and other applications. For more information on any of our products contact us today on 01903 731470.

Global Initiatives Tackling Shipping Emissions

China has a well-documented pollution problem. Scenes of Chinese city workers wearing face masks often appear on our television news reports.  Little wonder, then, that at last the government has begun to act.

But China’s policymakers are not only concerned with urban smog caused by traffic and industry.  They are also looking at marine emissions – the third largest source of air pollution, after vehicles and factories – and are considering a new standard for marine fuel quality (which currently falls short of that of the most developed nations) and its usage.

The south-eastern city of Shenzhen is hosting a project which involves subsidies for vessels using low sulphur fuel.  Meanwhile, Hong Kong, where shipping accounted for half of the city’s pollution, has led the way in tackling emissions, including requiring vessels using the Pearl River Delta ports to use low sulphur diesel.

European monitoring

In Europe, new measures to regulate the monitoring and reporting of carbon emissions came into force at the beginning of last month.  Owners and operators of ships entering EU ports must now begin preparing a monitoring plan for submitting for verification by the end of August 2017.  Ships will need to monitor their carbon emissions, distances travelled and record the cargo carried.  This information must then be independently verified and reported each year to the country in which the ship is registered (its flag state) and to the European authorities.  .

The regulation is the first step in a strategy to reduce maritime greenhouse gas emissions (the next stage involves meeting emissions reduction targets) which is intended to contribute to an international system for bringing down carbon emissions.

The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate (‘the Commission’) has argued that by taking full advantage of currently feasible efficiency measures the shipping industry could save over $30 billion in bunker fuel costs each year.  Encouragingly, there is much greater scope for reducing emissions in the shipping industry compared to other transportation sectors.  According to the European Commission, fuel consumption could potentially be reduced by up to 55%.

Worldwide case for monitoring

Echoing the concerns that led the EU to bring in its monitoring and reporting initiative, the Global Commission has made the case for worldwide, standardised and reliable information on both ship efficiency and the advantages of various efficiency measures.

The Commission highlighted the process of polishing propellers more frequently as just one cost-effective way of securing fuel-efficiency gains.

Global shipping emissions cap

It also argued for a global shipping emissions cap.  Earlier this year, the Republic of the Marshall Islands submitted a proposal for a reduction target to the IMO: although this was rejected, emissions regulations are likely to tighten further in the years ahead.  As Chris Daw, Managing Director of Parker Kittiwake Procal, pointed out in an article for The Motorship, continuous monitoring of emissions is vital if shipping vessels are to avoid breaching the rules.

An instrument such as the proven and reliable Procal 2000 will monitor up to six exhaust gases and display data without any manual intervention.

For more information on this low-maintenance marine monitoring system contact the team at Parker Kittiwake today on 01903 731470.

Dangers of Undetected Wear Debris in Oil

Not all metallic wear is the same.  But whatever the type or cause, undetected wear debris has the potential to disrupt operations and cause costly repairs to vessels if not detected early enough.

Corrosive wear

As the name suggests corrosive wear occurs on sliding surfaces in a corrosive environment, and is common in ships – especially those powered by diesel engines that use fuel with a high sulphur content.  The combustion products combine to form sulphuric acid, which damages cylinders and piston rings.  High temperatures and humidity, and metals with insufficient resistance to corrosion are other contributory factors.

Adhesion, which is a form of ‘cold’ welding, and contact fatigue, caused by cyclic stress over a long period of time, are two further types of wear.

Wear debris analysis

While catching faults early enables decisions about remedial work to be more effectively planned, it is also important to find out precisely where the fault originates.  Wear debris analysis allows engineers to examine the wear mechanisms of machinery without taking it apart.  The fragments of debris will indicate which elements of the machine are damaged and also the nature of the problem causing the damage.

Ferrous Wear Debris Sensor

The Parker Kittiwake Ferrous Wear Debris Sensor will flag up any changes to the wear pattern at a very early stage, minimising damage to the vessel.  This highly sensitive piece of equipment can detect wear particles which other products find too small.  Extensively used at sea, it works seamlessly alongside existing monitoring systems and complements any laboratory oil analysis programmes already in place.

ATEX Metallic Wear Debris Sensor

The ATEX Metallic Wear Debris Sensor is identical to our Metallic Wear Debris Sensor but has been certified for use in hazardous areas.  It is the first of its kind to be approved for use in ATEX zones 1 and 2, the collective term for European directives controlling explosive atmospheres, and provides real-time wear debris count for both non-ferrous and ferrous wear metals.  It can be mounted within any lubrication system and uses magnetometry and smart algorithms to calculate particle size, speciation (which refers to the distribution of one or more chemical elements within all possible compounds) and count.


The LinerSCAN monitors the iron content in two-stroke marine engine oil.  It offers remote date logging, reporting and alarm functions.  Scuffing is detected within seconds, which allows almost instant corrective action.  It can also give early warning of problems associated with the highly abrasive catalysts (known as ‘cat fines’) that have to be removed from oil residues after the refining process – problems that are likely to become more frequent as demand for low sulphur fuel increases.

Ferrous Wear Meter

The Ferrous Wear Meter (FWM) is an easy-to-use instrument for testing oil samples onboard where off-site laboratory analysis is not possible.  In common with the products we have just described and also with our ANALEX FdMplus and other technology in our Ferrographic Lab range, it reports in industry-standard parts per million (ppm) values which makes for straightforward comparisons with subsequent laboratory test results.

For more information about wear debris and oil analysis contact us today on 01903 731470.

Will the End of China’s Oil Age Come Sooner Than We Think?

A recent report by oil giant BP found that energy demand in China is growing at the slowest rate since the Asian financial crisis of the 1990s.

The market for energy, dominated by coal and oil, has weakened as the economy slows and the Chinese government acts to both reduce the nation’s reliance on heavy industry and encourage growth in the services sector.

The true picture is often masked by headlines reporting monthly and quarterly figures that tell a different, potentially misleading story – one of continuing growth.  For example, oil demand climbed 5.4% year-on-year in April, while the first four months of this year saw a 4.4% increase in demand compared to the same period last year, representing the fastest pace of year-to-date growth since 2011.  But closer analysis of longer-term trends shows that the pick-up in demand is for light-end products such as gasoline (petrol), buoyed by an uplift in car sales.  Also, data on products in storage are only released irregularly, so demand may appear to outstrip actual consumption (and there is no official data on the country’s actual oil consumption).

A less bullish statistic for April reveals a slump in the fuel oil market.  Consumption tax increases have made it more expensive, hitting China’s independent refiners.

Peak oil

Confirmation of the underlying energy trend came from Fu Chengyu, Chairman of Sinopec, China’s biggest oil refiner, in March this year.  He forecast that the peak in China’s demand for diesel would be reached in just two years’ time, with the high point for gasoline arriving about eight years later.

Sinopec is already envisaging a future in which fuels become a non-core part of its business, which will focus instead on alternative energy and selling consumer goods at its filling stations.

The company is better placed to assess demand than any other, so it is interesting that its predictions run counter to those of the Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA).  The IEA, whose findings are closely watched by energy traders, has predicted that China’s oil demand will continue expanding beyond 2040.  It does, however, acknowledge that statistics are not effective indicators of market changes as they often involve ‘…extrapolations from recent trends, which naturally tend to assume business as usual’.

Clean energy – the future?

China’s shift towards cleaner sources of energy, such as natural gas, is already having an impact on shipping companies.  As demand for iron ore and coal falls away, many operators are laying off vessels.

As for the fall in global oil prices over the last year, some analysts believe that this trend will not be reversed.  The developed world has become more energy-efficient and alternative energy sources are at last looking competitive – in fact, low prices have driven improvements in drilling technology, which is especially the case for the young shale industry in the USA.  The developing world is likely to follow suit.

But even if the story is no longer one of continued expansion, the oil sector will continue to generate profits for well-managed, efficient companies for many years to come.

Parker Kittiwake continues to provide analysers to monitor refinery emissions.  To find out more contact us on 01903 731470.

Keeping Machinery Running: Essential Products for Monitoring Fluid Cleanliness

Contaminated fluid is the source of the majority of problems that occur in hydraulic systems.  Effective monitoring and management of fluid condition and cleanliness can make all the difference to performance and lifespan.

Parker Kittiwake products for monitoring fluid cleanliness have been developed in accordance with the international standard relating to contamination levels in industrial fluid power components.  Under this ISO standard, a code number is assigned to various levels of particulate contamination.  The operator can set a target value to use as a performance indicator for tracking and reporting.

For the aviation industry we offer the icount ACM20.  With an on-board, rear-mounted pump, it monitors a range of applications including fuel storage tanks and drums.

For shipping operators, condition monitoring remains as vital as ever – not least because some of the low sulphur fuels now used in Emission Control Areas (ECAs) have a tendency to dislodge old fuel deposits in the tank, leading to a breach of the ECA compliance rules and also inferior performance.

Products for the shipping industry

Automatic Particle Counters, which for many years have played a part in condition monitoring, can now be adapted for use outside the laboratory.  With the Parker Kittiwake icount Laser CM20 monitor, online monitoring can take place while the application is still running, sidestepping the need for costly shutdowns.

The icountBSplus bottle sampler uses up-to-date design and laser technology for quick, on-board fluid bottle sampling. It gives a reliable, precise and real-time analysis of fluid moisture and temperature capability using a sensor directly in the water flow.

The popularity of the icountBSplus, together with the specific requirements of the offshore oil and gas sector, led us to develop a CE-compliant water-glycol option, which we launched in May.  This identifies contamination in blowout preventers and other assets, which, if blocked, will cause the safety components to stick (with potentially disastrous results).

For measuring the quality of hydraulic oils and hydrocarbon fuels we offer the
icount Oil Sampler (IOS).

This self-contained system has a laser detection particle counter and a web page generator for the straightforward downloading of data onto a PC or laptop.  Even though it incorporates a number of valuable additional features, it remains easy to use.  It detects both particulates and dissolved water with precision and in real time.

The very latest in Parker laser-based technology underpins our icountPD particle detector.  It provides continuous monitoring of system contamination trends and comes with LED warning lights and self-diagnostic software.

Lastly, Parker Kittiwake’s Oilcheck is a portable tool, which enables the user to compare new and used oils and gives early warning of engine failure.

Reliability and durability

In a competitive global market avoiding downtime is important to prevent costs spiralling.  Keeping lubricants and components free of contaminants will improve the overall reliability of the equipment.

Parker Kittiwake has over two decades’ experience developing products which give operators the quick information they need to keep machinery running smoothly for longer.  If you would like more information on any of our products, contact us on 01903 731470.

EU rules on reporting emissions

The European Parliament has given the nod to new draft rules on reporting fuel efficiency and shipping emissions in European Union waters.

The agreement establishes a scheme for the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas emissions with the aim of increasing the transparency of emissions data and reducing fuel consumption.

The text of the agreement will be voted on at the forthcoming Council of Ministers meeting.

Under the agreement, ships in all categories will need to report on how energy efficient they are (in terms of moving a given cargo volume over a given distance).  A document certifying compliance will have to be carried on board and be available for inspection by officials from EU member states.

Prior to the agreement, international shipping had been the only means of transport not included in EU measures to bring down greenhouse gas emissions.

Industry disappointment

However, shipping industry groups have criticised the proposals.  As non-EU ships trading with Europe will be affected, the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is concerned that the EU is pre-empting the result of ongoing International Maritime Organization negotiations on reducing emissions, which were generally considered to be progressing well.  Non-EU nations may take a dim view of a separate regional regime, pushed forward by Europe, which might not be compatible with the outcome of the IMO’s wider global discussions.  For countries such as China and India in particular, carbon dioxide regulations are politically sensitive.

There is also disquiet at the prospect of the publication of commercially sensitive data on individual ships, a move that the majority of governmental representatives at the IMO had voted down last autumn.

Furthermore, the shipping industry maintains that, even as maritime trade increases, its total carbon emissions have already been reduced by more than 10% between 2007 and 2012.

Meanwhile, the European Federation for Transport & Environment, which represents businesses in these industries across Europe, applauds the increased competition and greater fuel efficiency the regulations will bring.  However, it is concerned that rapid growth in the shipping sector will cancel out any efficiency gains.

EfficienSea: reducing emissions

A separate EU scheme aimed at increasing shipping efficiency is EfficienSea2, for which funding has been approved.  Involving a consortium of 12 EU countries led by the Danish Maritime Authority, it will not only see the development of the ‘Maritime Cloud’ communication tool for exchanging maritime information, but also bring in new digital services to facilitate the automatic, remote reporting and monitoring of ship emissions and scrubber systems performance.  By allowing authorities access to reporting information and other data, operators may have their reporting process fast-tracked on entry to ports.

EfficienSea2 will also provide a test bed for developing e-navigation solutions intended to standardise the expanding range of electronic navigation and communications systems.

Parker Kittiwake has built a solid reputation as a global leader in emissions monitoring systems for the marine industry; for more information call the team on +44 1903 731470.

Parker Kittiwake – on the road to keep you at sea…

Our condition monitoring experts are escaping the office for three days this month for our Hamburg roadshow.

They will be in the city from 16th to 18th June to showcase our market-leading products. The team will be on hand to give a warm welcome to marine engineers and shipping industry professionals who wish to come and inspect, test and discuss our innovative monitoring technology.

Cylinder analysis

Cold corrosion problems? Scuffing incidents? Feed rate optimisation? Parker Kittiwake’s unique tools for monitoring your main engines condition allow you to optimise parameters to ensure optimal running and life of cylinder ring packs, liners and other engine components.

Sensors for wear analysis are especially important now that the requirement for low-sulphur fuel is increasing the risk of scuffing and engine cylinder issues.  Our LinerSCAN cylinder liner monitor supplies real-time data to ensure the optimum cylinder oil lubricant feed rate can be set.

Lube analysis

For looking after your oil – and your valuable vessels – we manufacture practical online conditioning monitoring tools.

Bunker fuel testing products

We also have equipment for on-site testing of bunker fuel, whether for density (our Marine Fuel Density Meter), viscosity (the Heated Viscometer, among other products) or cloud point – which refers to the temperature at which filter-obstructing wax crystals emerge (our robust Cloud Point Detector).  Our lightweight, easy-to-install Fuel Drip Bunker Sampler complies with MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI and is used by vessels worldwide. Available in a number of different sizes, it is the most economic method of collecting a representative bunker fuel sample.

Emissions Monitoring

Procal gas analysis CEM’s system for marine applications, the Procal 2000 infra-red gas analyser will be on display at the roadshow. Suitable for both scrubbed and unscrubbed applications, the P2000 is a world leader in the marine market.

Meet us in Hamburg

The Hamburg roadshow is your opportunity to talk about your application requirements with us and discover the most suitable products for achieving the best possible performance and reliability.

By using the best and latest in condition monitoring products and solutions, your engineers will have the tools they need to ensure fuel quality, keep machinery functioning properly for longer, detect problems before they lead to costly engine failure – and keep your business running successfully.

Registering for the roadshow

If you would like to attend, please indicate when you plan to come by clicking here and completing the simple booking form.  We can then ensure that the right products are on display and arrange for the team members best-placed to help you to be on hand.

The venue is The Design Offices, Training Room II, Cathedral Square, Domstrasse 10, 20095 Hamburg.  We will be here from 9am to 6pm on each of the three days.

If you would like to see details of our products ahead of the roadshow, please visit the Parker Kittiwake website or, for more information, call the team on +44 1903 731470.

How a healthy & viable shipping industry can help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Global prosperity is built on shipping and trade.  The world as we know it would be unthinkable without the container shipping industry: however, its size and international scope also make it a focus of critical attention in any discussion about greenhouse gas emissions.

Concern about the shipping industry’s own prosperity was apparent in an address by the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) to a United Nations meeting on the Law of Sea in early April.  The ICS stated that only if the shipping industry is commercially viable will it be able to invest in environmental and social improvements. It is estimated that implementing new environmental regulations will cost the industry over $500 billion over the next decade – one reason why the ICS argues that economic considerations should be given weight when drawing up similar regulations in the years to come.

Although carbon dioxide emissions from international shipping, on the decline in recent years, are now expected to rise again as the global economy strengthens, shipping continues to compare favourably with other forms of commercial transport, and operators are looking at ways of limiting emissions:

Running vessels at slower speeds – ‘slow steaming’ has already seen fuel costs and emissions fall.

Improving the efficiency of engines and propellers – as vessels have grown to super-sized proportions, their operators can fairly claim that energy efficiency and economies of scale have increased too.  One of the world’s largest container ships, Maersk Line’s Triple E, has a squarer profile which enables it to carry more containers.  It also has a redesigned engine and state-of-the-art waste heat recovery system.

Opening the door to innovative ideas – experts believe technology such as Flettner rotors could play a role in container shipping.  Flettner rotors are, in effect, sailing systems which use the wind for propulsion, reducing reliance on fossil fuel-burning engines.  However, they are expensive to install and can make unloading operations more difficult.

Switching to alternative fuels – these include biofuels – Maersk Line has been experimenting with algae biofuel – and Liquid Natural Gas (LNG).

Installing seawater scrubbers in this type of scrubbing, the alkalines in the water react with the sulphur oxides in the exhaust and neutralise them.  No additives are required.  The technology has been approved by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and enables operators to continue using their existing fuel rather than switch to a low sulphur alternative.  A range of analysers from Procal, including the Procal P2000, are currently monitoring exhaust gases in marine scrubbing systems.

Since the revised MARPOL Annexe VI regulations limiting sulphur in fuel came into effect, checks on fuel quality have never been so important.  Operators around the world call on the market leading skills of Parker Kittiwake for bunker fuel sampling and testing: for more information please call the team on +44 1903 731470.